Upgrading to Async with Entity Framework, Web Api, OData AsyncEntitySetController, Kendo UI, Glimpse & Generic Unit of Work Repository Framework v2.0

Update [11/18/2013]: Added mocked DbContext and DbSet and example Unit Tests using the mocks, download v2.1 https://genericunitofworkandrepositories.codeplex.com.

Thanks to everyone for allowing us to give back to the .NET community, we released Generic Unit of Work and Repository Framework v1.0 for four weeks and received 655 downloads and 4121 views. This post will also serve as the documentation for release v2.0. Thanks to Ivan (@ifarkas) for helping out on the Async development, Ken for debugging the Unit of Work life cycle management for use in web applications with DI & IoC (specifically with Entlib Unity v3.0) and scaling the framework to handle Bounded DbContexts, and to the Glimpse Team (@nickswan ) for helping out on getting Glimpse MVC4 working with MVC5, and providing guidance on how to leverage Glimpse EF6 to view SQL queries from EF.

This will be part six of a six part series of blog posts.

  1. Modern Web Application Layered High Level Architecture with SPA, MVC, Web API, EF, Kendo UI, OData
  2. Generically Implementing the Unit of Work & Repository Pattern with Entity Framework in MVC & Simplifying Entity Graphs
  3. MVC 4, Kendo UI, SPA with Layout, View, Router & MVVM
  4. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Grid, Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  5. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Binding a Form to Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  6. Upgrading to Async with Entity Framework, MVC, OData AsyncEntitySetController, Kendo UI, Glimpse & Generic Unit of Work Repository Framework v2.0

We’ll continue on from the most recent post in this series, you can do a quick review of it here http://blog.longle.net/2013/06/19/mvc-4-web-api-odata-ef-kendo-ui-binding-a-form-to-datasource-crud-with-mvvm-part. Now let’s get right into it, by first taking a look at what was all involved on the server side.

First off let’s take a quick look and the changes we made to our DbContextBase to support Async.

Repository.DbContextBase.cs

Before


    public class DbContextBase : DbContext, IDbContext
    {
        private readonly Guid _instanceId;

        public DbContextBase(string nameOrConnectionString) : base(nameOrConnectionString)
        {
            _instanceId = Guid.NewGuid();
        }

        public Guid InstanceId
        {
            get { return _instanceId; }
        }

        public void ApplyStateChanges()
        {
            foreach (var dbEntityEntry in ChangeTracker.Entries())
            {
                var entityState = dbEntityEntry.Entity as IObjectState;
                if (entityState == null)
                    throw new InvalidCastException("All entites must implement the IObjectState interface, " +
                                                   "this interface must be implemented so each entites state can explicitely determined when updating graphs.");

                dbEntityEntry.State = StateHelper.ConvertState(entityState.State);
            }
        }

        public new IDbSet<T> Set<T>() where T : class
        {
            return base.Set<T>();
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder builder)
        {
            builder.Conventions.Remove<PluralizingTableNameConvention>();
            base.OnModelCreating(builder);
        }

        public override int SaveChanges()
        {
            ApplyStateChanges();
            return base.SaveChanges();
        }
    }

After:


    public class DbContextBase : DbContext, IDbContext
    {
        private readonly Guid _instanceId;

        public DbContextBase(string nameOrConnectionString) : base(nameOrConnectionString)
        {
            _instanceId = Guid.NewGuid();
        }

        public Guid InstanceId
        {
            get { return _instanceId; }
        }

        public void ApplyStateChanges()
        {
            foreach (DbEntityEntry dbEntityEntry in ChangeTracker.Entries())
            {
                var entityState = dbEntityEntry.Entity as IObjectState;
                if (entityState == null)
                    throw new InvalidCastException("All entites must implement the IObjectState interface, " +
                                                   "this interface must be implemented so each entites state can explicitely determined when updating graphs.");

                dbEntityEntry.State = StateHelper.ConvertState(entityState.State);
            }
        }

        public new IDbSet<T> Set<T>() where T : class
        {
            return base.Set<T>();
        }

        public override int SaveChanges()
        {
            ApplyStateChanges();
            return base.SaveChanges();
        }

        public override Task<int> SaveChangesAsync()
        {
            ApplyStateChanges();
            return base.SaveChangesAsync();
        }

        public override Task<int> SaveChangesAsync(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            ApplyStateChanges();
            return base.SaveChangesAsync(cancellationToken);
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder builder)
        {
            builder.Conventions.Remove<PluralizingTableNameConvention>();
            base.OnModelCreating(builder);
        }
    }

All that was needed here was to expose all the DbContext Async save operations so that we could use with our IUnitOfWork implementation, and also not forgetting to invoke our ApplyStateChanges so that we are managing the different states each entity could have when dealing with graphs.

Next up, are the enhancements made to our Repository.cs, so that our generic repositories can leverage the Async goodness as well.

Repostiory.Repository.cs

Before:


 public class Repository<TEntity> : IRepository<TEntity> where TEntity : class
    {
        private readonly Guid _instanceId;
        internal IDbContext Context;
        internal IDbSet<TEntity> DbSet;

        public Repository(IDbContext context)
        {
            Context = context;
            DbSet = context.Set<TEntity>();
            _instanceId = Guid.NewGuid();
        }

        public Guid InstanceId
        {
            get { return _instanceId; }
        }

        public virtual TEntity FindById(object id)
        {
            return DbSet.Find(id);
        }

        public virtual void InsertGraph(TEntity entity)
        {
            DbSet.Add(entity);
        }

        public virtual void Update(TEntity entity)
        {
            DbSet.Attach(entity);
        }

        public virtual void Delete(object id)
        {
            var entity = DbSet.Find(id);
            ((IObjectState) entity).State = ObjectState.Deleted;
            Delete(entity);
        }

        public virtual void Delete(TEntity entity)
        {
            DbSet.Attach(entity);
            DbSet.Remove(entity);
        }

        public virtual void Insert(TEntity entity)
        {
            DbSet.Attach(entity);
        }

        public virtual IRepositoryQuery<TEntity> Query()
        {
            var repositoryGetFluentHelper = new RepositoryQuery<TEntity>(this);
            return repositoryGetFluentHelper;
        }

        internal IQueryable<TEntity> Get(
            Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> filter = null,
            Func<IQueryable<TEntity>, IOrderedQueryable<TEntity>> orderBy = null,
            List<Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>> includeProperties = null,
            int? page = null,
            int? pageSize = null)
        {
            IQueryable<TEntity> query = DbSet;

            if (includeProperties != null)
                includeProperties.ForEach(i => query = query.Include(i));

            if (filter != null)
                query = query.Where(filter);

            if (orderBy != null)
                query = orderBy(query);

            if (page != null && pageSize != null)
                query = query
                    .Skip((page.Value - 1)*pageSize.Value)
                    .Take(pageSize.Value);

            var results = query;

            return results;
        }
    }

After:


    public class Repository<TEntity> : IRepository<TEntity> where TEntity : class
    {
        private readonly Guid _instanceId;
        private readonly DbSet<TEntity> _dbSet;

        public Repository(IDbContext context)
        {
            _dbSet = context.Set<TEntity>();
            _instanceId = Guid.NewGuid();
        }

        public Guid InstanceId
        {
            get { return _instanceId; }
        }

        public virtual TEntity Find(params object[] keyValues)
        {
            return _dbSet.Find(keyValues);
        }

        public virtual async Task<TEntity> FindAsync(params object[] keyValues)
        {
            return await _dbSet.FindAsync(keyValues);
        }

        public virtual async Task<TEntity> FindAsync(CancellationToken cancellationToken, params object[] keyValues)
        {
            return await _dbSet.FindAsync(cancellationToken, keyValues);
        }

        public virtual IQueryable<TEntity> SqlQuery(string query, params object[] parameters)
        {
            return _dbSet.SqlQuery(query, parameters).AsQueryable();
        }

        public virtual void InsertGraph(TEntity entity)
        {
            _dbSet.Add(entity);
        }

        public virtual void Update(TEntity entity)
        {
            _dbSet.Attach(entity);
            ((IObjectState)entity).State = ObjectState.Modified;
        }

        public virtual void Delete(object id)
        {
            var entity = _dbSet.Find(id);
            Delete(entity);
        }

        public virtual void Delete(TEntity entity)
        {
            _dbSet.Attach(entity);
            ((IObjectState)entity).State = ObjectState.Deleted;
            _dbSet.Remove(entity);
        }

        public virtual void Insert(TEntity entity)
        {
            _dbSet.Attach(entity);
            ((IObjectState)entity).State = ObjectState.Added;
        }

        public virtual IRepositoryQuery<TEntity> Query()
        {
            var repositoryGetFluentHelper = new RepositoryQuery<TEntity>(this);
            return repositoryGetFluentHelper;
        }

        internal IQueryable<TEntity> Get(
            Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> filter = null,
            Func<IQueryable<TEntity>, IOrderedQueryable<TEntity>> orderBy = null,
            List<Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>> includeProperties = null,
            int? page = null,
            int? pageSize = null)
        {
            IQueryable<TEntity> query = _dbSet;

            if (includeProperties != null)
            {
                includeProperties.ForEach(i => query = query.Include(i));
            }

            if (filter != null)
            {
                query = query.Where(filter);
            }

            if (orderBy != null)
            {
                query = orderBy(query);
            }

            if (page != null && pageSize != null)
            {
                query = query
                    .Skip((page.Value - 1)*pageSize.Value)
                    .Take(pageSize.Value);
            }
            return query;
        }

        internal async Task<IEnumerable<TEntity>> GetAsync(
                    Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> filter = null,
                    Func<IQueryable<TEntity>, IOrderedQueryable<TEntity>> orderBy = null,
                    List<Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>> includeProperties = null,
                    int? page = null,
                    int? pageSize = null)
        {
            return Get(filter, orderBy, includeProperties, page, pageSize).AsEnumerable();
        }
    }

Here we’ve exposed the FindAsync methods from DbSet, so our Repositories can make use of them, and we’ve also wrapped implemented an Async implementation of our Get() method so that we can use it in our new Web Api ProductController.cs later.

Important note: here is that although our method is named GetAsync, it is not truly performing an Async interaction, this is due to the fact that if we were to use ToListAsync(), we would already executed the the query prior to OData applying it’s criteria to the execution plan e.g. if the OData query was requesting 10 records for page 2 of a grid from a Products table that had 1000 rows in it, ToListAsync() would have actually pulled a 1000 records from SQL to the web server and at that time do a skip 10 and take 20 from the collection of Products with 1000 objects. What we want is for this to happen on the SQL Server, meaning, SQL query the Products table, skip the first 10, and take next 10 records and only send those 10 records over to the web server, which will eventually surface into the Grid in the user’s browsers. Hence we are favoring payload size (true SQL Server side paging) going over the wire, vs. a true Async call to SQL.

Northwind.Web.Areas.Spa.Api.ProductController.cs

Before:


    public class ProductController : EntitySetController<Product, int>
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _unitOfWork;

        public ProductController(IUnitOfWork unitOfWork)
        {
            _unitOfWork = unitOfWork;
        }

        public override IQueryable<Product> Get()
        {
            return _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Query().Get();
        }

        protected override Product GetEntityByKey(int key)
        {
            return _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindById(key);
        }

        protected override Product UpdateEntity(int key, Product update)
        {
            update.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Update(update);
            _unitOfWork.Save();

            return update;
        }

        public override void Delete([FromODataUri] int key)
        {
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Delete(key);
            _unitOfWork.Save();
        }

        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            _unitOfWork.Dispose();
            base.Dispose(disposing);
        }
    }
 

After:

Note: Don’t be overwhelmed by how much more code there is in the “After” for our new ProductController that now inherits AsyncEntitySetController. I’ll explain later, what all the other Actions are there for. For now, please keep in mind there are only a few of these Actions that are actually required for the use case on the live demo site. The only Actions (methods) that are needed for our use case are as follows:

  • Task<IEnumerable> Get()
  • Task Get([FromODataUri] int key)
  • Task UpdateEntityAsync(int key, Product update)
  • Task Delete([FromODataUri] int key)

[ODataNullValue]
public class ProductController : AsyncEntitySetController<Product, int>
{
    private readonly IUnitOfWork _unitOfWork;

    public ProductController(IUnitOfWork unitOfWork)
    {
        _unitOfWork = unitOfWork;
    }

    protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
    {
        _unitOfWork.Dispose();
        base.Dispose(disposing);
    }

    protected override int GetKey(Product entity)
    {
        return entity.ProductID;
    }

[Queryable]
public override async Task<IEnumerable<Product>> Get()
{
return await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Query().GetAsync();
}

    [Queryable]
    public override async Task<HttpResponseMessage> Get([FromODataUri] int key)
    {
        var query = _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Query().Filter(x => x.ProductID == key).Get();
        return Request.CreateResponse(HttpStatusCode.OK, query);
    }

    ///// <summary>
    ///// Retrieve an entity by key from the entity set.
    ///// </summary>
    ///// <param name="key">The entity key of the entity to retrieve.</param>
    ///// <returns>A Task that contains the retrieved entity when it completes, or null if an entity with the specified entity key cannot be found in the entity set.</returns>
    [Queryable]
    protected override async Task<Product> GetEntityByKeyAsync(int key)
    {
        return await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindAsync(key);
    }

    protected override async Task<Product> CreateEntityAsync(Product entity)
    {
        if (entity == null)
            throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
            
        _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Insert(entity);
        await _unitOfWork.SaveAsync();
        return entity;
    }

    protected override async Task<Product> UpdateEntityAsync(int key, Product update)
    {
        if (update == null)
            throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
            
        if (key != update.ProductID)
            throw new HttpResponseException(Request.CreateODataErrorResponse(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest, new ODataError { Message = "The supplied key and the Product being updated do not match." }));

        try
        {
            update.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Update(update);
            var x = await _unitOfWork.SaveAsync();
        }
        catch (DbUpdateConcurrencyException)
        {
            throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
        }
        return update;
    }

    // PATCH <controller>(key)
    /// <summary>
    /// Apply a partial update to an existing entity in the entity set.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="key">The entity key of the entity to update.</param>
    /// <param name="patch">The patch representing the partial update.</param>
    /// <returns>A Task that contains the updated entity when it completes.</returns>
    protected override async Task<Product> PatchEntityAsync(int key, Delta<Product> patch)
    {
        if (patch == null)
            throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);

        if (key != patch.GetEntity().ProductID)
            throw Request.EntityNotFound();

        var entity = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindAsync(key);

        if (entity == null)
            throw Request.EntityNotFound();

        try
        {
            patch.Patch(entity);
            await _unitOfWork.SaveAsync();
        }
        catch (DbUpdateConcurrencyException)
        {
            throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.Conflict);
        }
        return entity;
    }

    public override async Task Delete([FromODataUri] int key)
    {
        var entity = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindAsync(key);

        if (entity == null)
            throw Request.EntityNotFound();

        _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Delete(entity);

        try
        {
            await _unitOfWork.SaveAsync();
        }
        catch (Exception e)
        { 
            throw new HttpResponseException(
                new HttpResponseMessage(HttpStatusCode.Conflict)
                {
                    StatusCode = HttpStatusCode.Conflict, 
                    Content = new StringContent(e.Message), 
                    ReasonPhrase = e.InnerException.InnerException.Message
                });
        }
    }

    #region Links
    // Create a relation from Product to Category or Supplier, by creating a $link entity.
    // POST <controller>(key)/$links/Category
    // POST <controller>(key)/$links/Supplier
    /// <summary>
    /// Handle POST and PUT requests that attempt to create a link between two entities.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="key">The key of the entity with the navigation property.</param>
    /// <param name="navigationProperty">The name of the navigation property.</param>
    /// <param name="link">The URI of the entity to link.</param>
    /// <returns>A Task that completes when the link has been successfully created.</returns>
    [AcceptVerbs("POST", "PUT")]
    public override async Task CreateLink([FromODataUri] int key, string navigationProperty, [FromBody] Uri link)
    {
        var entity = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindAsync(key);

        if (entity == null)
            throw Request.EntityNotFound();
            
        switch (navigationProperty)
        {
            case "Category":
                var categoryKey = Request.GetKeyValue<int>(link);
                var category = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Category>().FindAsync(categoryKey);

                if (category == null)
                    throw Request.EntityNotFound();
                    
                    entity.Category = category;
                break;

            case "Supplier":
                var supplierKey = Request.GetKeyValue<int>(link);
                var supplier = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Supplier>().FindAsync(supplierKey);

                if (supplier == null)
                    throw Request.EntityNotFound();
                    
                    entity.Supplier = supplier;
                break;

            default:
                await base.CreateLink(key, navigationProperty, link);
                break;
        }
        await _unitOfWork.SaveAsync();
    }

    // Remove a relation, by deleting a $link entity
    // DELETE <controller>(key)/$links/Category
    // DELETE <controller>(key)/$links/Supplier
    /// <summary>
    /// Handle DELETE requests that attempt to break a relationship between two entities.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="key">The key of the entity with the navigation property.</param>
    /// <param name="relatedKey">The key of the related entity.</param>
    /// <param name="navigationProperty">The name of the navigation property.</param>
    /// <returns>Task.</returns>
    public override async Task DeleteLink([FromODataUri] int key, string relatedKey, string navigationProperty)
    {
        var entity = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindAsync(key);

        if (entity == null)
            throw Request.EntityNotFound();

        switch (navigationProperty)
        {
            case "Category":
                entity.Category = null;
                break;

            case "Supplier":
                entity.Supplier = null;
                break;

            default:
                await base.DeleteLink(key, relatedKey, navigationProperty);
                break;
        }

        await _unitOfWork.SaveAsync();
    }

    // Remove a relation, by deleting a $link entity
    // DELETE <controller>(key)/$links/Category
    // DELETE <controller>(key)/$links/Supplier
    /// <summary>
    /// Handle DELETE requests that attempt to break a relationship between two entities.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="key">The key of the entity with the navigation property.</param>
    /// <param name="navigationProperty">The name of the navigation property.</param>
    /// <param name="link">The URI of the entity to remove from the navigation property.</param>
    /// <returns>Task.</returns>
    public override async Task DeleteLink([FromODataUri] int key, string navigationProperty, [FromBody] Uri link)
    {
        var entity = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindAsync(key);

        if (entity == null)
            throw Request.EntityNotFound();

        switch (navigationProperty)
        {
            case "Category":
                entity.Category = null;
                break;

            case "Supplier":
                entity.Supplier = null;
                break;

            default:
                await base.DeleteLink(key, navigationProperty, link);
                break;
        }

        await _unitOfWork.SaveAsync();
    }
    #endregion Links

    public override async Task<HttpResponseMessage> HandleUnmappedRequest(ODataPath odataPath)
    {
        //TODO: add logic and proper return values
        return Request.CreateResponse(HttpStatusCode.NoContent, odataPath);
    }

    #region Navigation Properties
    public async Task<Category> GetCategory(int key)
    {
        var entity = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindAsync(key);

        if (entity == null)
            throw Request.EntityNotFound();
            
        return entity.Category;
    }

    public async Task<Supplier> GetSupplier(int key)
    {
        var entity = await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindAsync(key);

        if (entity == null)
            throw Request.EntityNotFound();
            
        return entity.Supplier;
    }
    #endregion Navigation Properties
}

Quickly looking at this, one can realize there is a lot more code than our pre-Async implementation. Well don’t be alarmed, there’s a lot of code here that wasn’t required to support our use case in the live demo (http://longle.azurewebsites.net), however we wanted to take the extra step so that we can really grasp on how to work with entity graphs with OData by leveraging the ?$expand query string parameter.

We’ll leave all the other that Actions that aren’t actually required for our use case on the live demo SPA as is, so we can see how to deep load your entity graph with OData and Web Api. We’ve included some pre-baked clickable OData URL’s (queries) on the View so that you can actually click and see the response payload in your browser (you’ll have to use Chrome or Firefox, IE has some catching up to do here).

*Click on image
10-9-2013 8-51-43 PM

Now let’s do a deep dive on the our Async Get() Action in our Controller.


[Queryable]
 
public override async Task<IEnumerable<Product>> Get()
{
    return await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Query().GetAsync();
}
 

My initial thought when seeing this this Action (signature) is that it’s not IQueryable?! Which means that the SQL plan from EF has already been executed before OData has an opportunity to apply it’s criteria to the query plan! Well that’s not the case, we outfitted the Project with Glimpse and Glimpse EF6 to actually see what SQL queries were being sent over the wire.

So let’s take a look at the loading up our Kendo UI Grid with the awesomeness of Glimpse running. Since our View is built with Kendo UI, and we know it’s invoking Ajax calls to request data, we’ll click on the Ajax panel on the Glimpse HUD.

*Click on image
10-9-2013 7-30-56 PM

Now with the HUD automatically switching to standard view we can see all the Ajax requests that our View made, we are interested in the OData request that was made to hydrate our Kendo Grid.

*Click on image
10-9-2013 8-04-32 PM

After clicking on Inspect for the Ajax OData request, we see that menu buttons buttons that have tracing data for that request start to actual blink…! One of them being SQL, so let’s click on it.

*Click on image
10-9-2013 8-32-10 PM

Ladies and gentlemen, I kid you not, behold this is the actual SQL query that was from our Unit Of Work -> Repostiory -> Entity Framework 6 -> T-SQL, that was actually sent to SQL Server (actually in our case SQL Server CE, so that the live demo can be complete free with Azure Website without the need to pay for SQL Azure). BTW, we just scratching the surface of what Glimpse can do, the list is pretty much endless e.g. displays MVC Routes, Actions, Tracing, Environment Variables, MVC Views, and performance metrics for pretty much all of them, etc.

Now back to the topic at hand, we can definitively see that although our Action and our Repository are returning IEnumerable:

Get Action the Kendo UI Datasource is calling, which returns IEnumerable.


[Queryable] 
 
public override async Task<IEnumerable<Product>> Get()
{
    return await _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Query().GetAsync();
}
 

Repository method the Action is calling, which also returns IEnumerable.


        internal async Task<IEnumerable<TEntity>> GetAsync(
                    Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> filter = null,
                    Func<IQueryable<TEntity>, IOrderedQueryable<TEntity>> orderBy = null,
                    List<Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>> includeProperties = null,
                    int? page = null,
                    int? pageSize = null)
        {
            return Get(filter, orderBy, includeProperties, page, pageSize).AsEnumerable();
        }
 

The query plan is still valid, meaning it’s selecting only the rows (10 records to be exact) that the Grid is requesting for page one (1) of the Grid. So how is this happening? Well we’ve decorated our action with the [Queryable] attribute, so OData and Web Api is able to perform it’s magic together during run-time in the ASP.NET HTTP pipeline.

T-SQL that’s being sent over the wire, courtesy of Glimpse EF6

 
 
SELECT TOP (10 /* @p__linq__0 */) 
    [Extent1].[Product ID] AS [Product ID], 
    [Extent1].[Product Name] AS [Product Name], 
    [Extent1].[Supplier ID] AS [Supplier ID], 
    [Extent1].[Category ID] AS [Category ID], 
    [Extent1].[Quantity Per Unit] AS [Quantity Per Unit], 
    [Extent1].[Unit Price] AS [Unit Price], 
    [Extent1].[Units In Stock] AS [Units In Stock], 
    [Extent1].[Units On Order] AS [Units On Order], 
    [Extent1].[Reorder Level] AS [Reorder Level], 
    [Extent1].[Discontinued] AS [Discontinued]
    FROM [Products] AS [Extent1]
    ORDER BY [Extent1].[Product ID] ASC
 

Now, let’s cover at a high-level on all the Actions that aren’t required for our live demo use case, which are mostly to support Navigation Properties e.g. Product.Supplier, Product.Category, etc.

The $expand query string parameter allows us to hydrate complex navigation property types. For example in our case when we query for a Product, and Product has a property of Category and we the Category to be hydrated with its data we would leverage the $expand querystring parameter to do this, click this Url : http://longle.azurewebsites.net/odata/Product/?$inlinecount=allpages&$orderby=ProductName&$skip=1&$top=2&$expand=Category&$select=ProductID,ProductName,Category/CategoryID,Category/CategoryName to see the $expand in action.

T-SQL that’s being sent over the wire, again, courtesy of Glimpse EF6

 
 
SELECT TOP (2 /* @p__linq__1 */) 
    [top].[Product ID] AS [Product ID], 
    [top].[C1] AS [C1], 
    [top].[C2] AS [C2], 
    [top].[Product Name] AS [Product Name], 
    [top].[C3] AS [C3], 
    [top].[C4] AS [C4], 
    [top].[C5] AS [C5], 
    [top].[C6] AS [C6], 
    [top].[Category Name] AS [Category Name], 
    [top].[C7] AS [C7], 
    [top].[Category ID] AS [Category ID], 
    [top].[C8] AS [C8]
    FROM ( SELECT [Project1].[Product ID] AS [Product ID], [Project1].[Product Name] AS [Product Name], [Project1].[Category ID] AS [Category ID], [Project1].[Category Name] AS [Category Name], [Project1].[C1] AS [C1], [Project1].[C2] AS [C2], [Project1].[C3] AS [C3], [Project1].[C4] AS [C4], [Project1].[C5] AS [C5], [Project1].[C6] AS [C6], [Project1].[C7] AS [C7], [Project1].[C8] AS [C8]
        FROM ( SELECT 
            [Extent1].[Product ID] AS [Product ID], 
            [Extent1].[Product Name] AS [Product Name], 
            [Extent1].[Category ID] AS [Category ID], 
            [Extent2].[Category Name] AS [Category Name], 
            N'ace5ad31-e3e9-4cde-9bb8-d75fced846fa' AS [C1], 
            N'ProductName' AS [C2], 
            N'ProductID' AS [C3], 
            N'Category' AS [C4], 
            N'ace5ad31-e3e9-4cde-9bb8-d75fced846fa' AS [C5], 
            N'CategoryName' AS [C6], 
            N'CategoryID' AS [C7], 
            CASE WHEN ([Extent1].[Category ID] IS NULL) THEN cast(1 as bit) ELSE cast(0 as bit) END AS [C8]
            FROM  [Products] AS [Extent1]
            LEFT OUTER JOIN [Categories] AS [Extent2] ON [Extent1].[Category ID] = [Extent2].[Category ID]
        )  AS [Project1]
        ORDER BY [Project1].[Product Name] ASC, [Project1].[Product ID] ASC
        OFFSET 1 /* @p__linq__0 */ ROWS 
    )  AS [top]
 

Product results with Categories hydrated

 
  
{
  "odata.metadata":"http://longle.azurewebsites.net/odata/$metadata#Product&$select=ProductID,ProductName,Category/CategoryID,Category/CategoryName","odata.count":"77","value":[
    {
      "Category":{
        "CategoryID":2,"CategoryName":"Condiments"
      },"ProductID":3,"ProductName":"Aniseed Syrup"
    },{
      "Category":{
        "CategoryID":8,"CategoryName":"Seafood"
      },"ProductID":40,"ProductName":"Boston Crab Meat"
    }
  ]
} 
 

We can really see the power of Web Api and OData now, we’re actually able to query for Products (skip the first and take the next two) and request that Category be hydrated but specifically only the CategoryId and Name and none of the other fields.

Sample Application Client Side (Kendo UI) Tweaks

We’ve polished the UI/UX a bit, relocated Edit, Edit Details, and Delete buttons out of the rows into the Grid Toolbar (header) to make better use of the Grid real estate, using Kendo’s Template Framework, which illustrates how flexible Kendo UI can be. The app has been upgraded to, Twitter Bootstrap as by leveraging the new out of the box MVC Project Templates in Visual Studio 2013 (Preview) and changing the Kendo UI theme to Bootstrap to match.

All Kendo Views which are remotely loaded on demand into the SPA are now actually MVC Razor Views, the Kendo Router remotely loads views by traditional MVC routes e.g.
{controller}/{action}/{id} vs. what was in the previous post (http://blog.longle.net/2013/06/17/mvc-4-kendo-ui-spa-with-layout-router-mvvm/) which was just serving up raw *.html pages. This has been a request for devs that are making the transition from server side MVC development into the SPA realm, and had .NET libraries they still wanted to make use of and leverage in their their Controllers, and Razor Views for SPA’s. Obviously, all Views and ViewModel binding on the client-side are done with with Kendo’s MVVM Framework.

Northwind.Web/Areas/Spa/Content/Views/products.html

Before (non Razor, just plain *.html pages were used for SPA):

 
@{
    ViewBag.Title = "Products";
    Layout = "";
}
<div class="row">
    <div class="span5">
        <h2>Technlogy Stack</h2>
        <h3><a href="http://blog.longle.net">blog.longle.net</a></h3>
        <p>ASP.NET MVC 4, Web API, OData, Entity Framework 6 CTP, EntityFramework CE 6 RC1, Visual Studio 2013 Preview, Sql Server CE, Twitter Bootstrap, Kendo UI Web, Azure Website PaaS (<a href="http://www.windowsazure.com/en-us/develop/net/aspnet/" target="blank">free!</a>)</p>
        <br />
        <p><a class="btn" href="http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=301865">Learn more &raquo;</a></p>
    </div>
</div>

<br /><br />
<div class="k-content" style="width: 100%">
    <div id="view">
        <div id="productGrid"
             data-role="grid"
             data-sortable="true"
             data-pageable="true"
             data-filterable="true"
             data-bind="source: dataSource, events: { dataBound: dataBound, change: onChange }"
             data-editable="inline"
             data-selectable="true"
             data-toolbar='[ { template: $("#toolbar").html() } ]'
             data-columns='[
                    { field: "ProductID", title: "ID", width: "50px" },
                    { field: "ProductName", title: "Name"},
                    { field: "QuantityPerUnit", title: "Quantity", width: "200px" },
                    { field: "UnitsInStock", title: "Stock", width: "90px" },
                    { field: "UnitPrice", title: "Price", format: "{0:c}", width: "100px" },
                    { field: "Discontinued", width: "150px" } ]'>
        </div>
    </div>
    <h3>Use Chrome or Firefox and click on OData (queries) Urls below for example results.</h3>
    <ul>
        <li><a href="/odata/$metadata">/odata/$metadata</a></li>
        <li><a href="/odata/Product">/odata/Product</a></li>
        <li><a href="/odata/Product/?$select=ProductID,ProductName">/odata/Product/?$select=ProductID,ProductName</a></li>
        <li><a href="/odata/Product/?$orderby=ProductName&$skip=1&$top=2">/odata/Product/?$orderby=ProductName&$skip=1&$top=2</a></li>
        <li><a href="/odata/Product/?$orderby=ProductName&$skip=1&$top=2">/odata/Product/?$orderby=ProductName&$skip=1&$top=2</a></li>
        <li><a href="/odata/Product/?$inlinecount=allpages&$filter=UnitPrice ge 20">/odata/Product/?$inlinecount=allpages&$filter=UnitPrice ge 20</a></li>
        <li><a href="/odata/Product/?$expand=Category">/odata/Product/?$expand=Category</a></li>
        <li><a href="/odata/Product/?$expand=Category&$select=ProductID,ProductName,Category/CategoryID,Category/CategoryName">/odata/Product/?$expand=Category&$select=ProductID,ProductName,Category/CategoryID,Category/CategoryName</a></li>
        <li><a href="/odata/Product/?$inlinecount=allpages&$orderby=ProductName&$skip=1&$top=2&$expand=Category&$select=ProductID,ProductName,Category/CategoryID,Category/CategoryName">/odata/Product/?$inlinecount=allpages&$orderby=ProductName&$skip=1&$top=2&$expand=Category&$select=ProductID,ProductName,Category/CategoryID,Category/CategoryName</a></li>
    </ul>
</div>

<script type="text/x-kendo-template" id="toolbar">
    <div class="toolbar">
        <a class="k-button" onclick="edit(event);"><span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span>Edit</a>
        <a class="k-button" onclick="destroy(event);"><span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span>Delete</a>
        <a class="k-button" onclick="details(event);"><span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span>Edit Details</a>
    </div>
    <div class="toolbar" style="display:none">
        <a class="k-button" onclick="save(event);"><span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span>Save</a>
        <a class="k-button" onclick="cancel(event);"><span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span>Cancel</a>
    </div>
</script>

<script>
    var lastSelectedDataItem;

    var save = function (event) {
        onClick(event, function (grid) {
            grid.saveRow();
            $(".toolbar").toggle();
        });
    };

    var cancel = function (event) {
        onClick(event, function (grid) {
            grid.cancelRow();
            $(".toolbar").toggle();
        });
    };

    var details = function (event) {
        onClick(event, function (grid, row, dataItem) {
            window.location.href = '#/edit/' + dataItem.ProductID;
        });
    };

    var edit = function (event) {
        onClick(event, function (grid, row) {
            grid.editRow(row);
            $(".toolbar").toggle();
        });
    };

    var destroy = function (event) {
        onClick(event, function (grid, row, dataItem) {
            grid.dataSource.remove(dataItem);
            grid.dataSource.sync();
        });
    };

    var onClick = function (event, delegate) {
        event.preventDefault();
        var grid = $("#productGrid").data("kendoGrid");
        var selectedRow = grid.select();
        var dataItem = grid.dataItem(selectedRow);
        if (selectedRow.length > 0)
            delegate(grid, selectedRow, dataItem);
        else
            alert("Please select a row.");
    };

    var Product = kendo.data.Model.define({
        id: "ProductID",
        fields: {
            ProductID: { type: "number", editable: false, nullable: true },
            ProductName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
            QuantityPerUnit: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
            UnitsInStock: { type: "number", validation: { required: true } },
            UnitPrice: { type: "number", validation: { required: true, min: 1 } },
            Discontinued: { type: "boolean" }
        }
    });

    var baseUrl = "/odata/Product";

    var dataSource = new kendo.data.DataSource({
        type: "odata",
        transport: {
            read: {
                url: baseUrl,
                dataType: "json"
            },
            update: {
                url: function (data) {
                    return baseUrl + "(" + data.ProductID + ")";
                },
                dataType: "json"
            },
            destroy: {
                url: function (data) {
                    return baseUrl + "(" + data.ProductID + ")";
                },
                dataType: "json"
            }
        },
        batch: false,
        serverPaging: true,
        serverSorting: true,
        serverFiltering: true,
        pageSize: 10,
        schema: {
            data: function (data) {
                return data.value;
            },
            total: function (data) {
                return data["odata.count"];
            },
            errors: function (e) {
                return e.errors;
            },
            model: Product
        },
        error: function (e) {
            var responseJson = e.xhr.responseJSON;
            if (responseJson != undefined) {
                if (responseJson["odata.error"] != undefined) {
                    var error = responseJson["odata.error"];
                    var message = error.message.value + '\n\n' + error.innererror.message;
                    alert(message);
                }
            } else {
                alert(e.xhr.status + "\n\n" + e.xhr.responseText + "\n\n" + e.xhr.statusText);
            }
            this.read();
        }
    });

    var viewModel = kendo.observable({
        dataSource: dataSource,
        dataBound: function (arg) {
            if (lastSelectedDataItem == null) return; // check if there was a row that was selected
            var view = this.dataSource.view(); // get all the rows
            for (var i = 0; i < view.length; i++) { // iterate through rows
                if (view[i].ProductID == lastSelectedDataItem.ProductID) { // find row with the lastSelectedProductd
                    var grid = arg.sender; // get the grid
                    grid.select(grid.table.find("tr[data-uid='" + view[i].uid + "']")); // set the selected row
                    break;
                }
            }
        },
        onChange: function (arg) {
            var grid = arg.sender;
            lastSelectedDataItem = grid.dataItem(grid.select());
        },
    });

    $(document).bind("viewSwtichedEvent", function (e, args) { // subscribe to the viewSwitchedEvent
        if (args.name == "list") { // check if this view was switched too
            if (args.isRemotelyLoaded) { // check if this view was loaded for the first time (remotely from server)
                kendo.bind($("#view"), viewModel); // bind the view to the model
            } else {// view already been loaded in cache
                viewModel.dataSource.read(); // refresh grid
            }
        }
    });

</script>
<style scoped>
    #productGrid .k-toolbar {
        padding: .7em;
    }

    .toolbar {
        float: right;
    }
</style>
 

10-9-2013 7-11-39 PM

Happy Coding…! :)

Live Demo: http://longle.azurewebsites.net
Download: https://genericunitofworkandrepositories.codeplex.com/

Bounded DbContext with Generic Unit of Work, Generic Repositories, Entity Framework 6 & EntLib Unity 3.0 in MVC 4

Update: 08/12/2013 – Changed InjectionConstructor parameter to: ResolvedParameter<IDbContext>(), to trigger compilation of the container when setting up the DbBounded Context and UnitOfWork(s) registrations.

Update: 08/08/2013 – Added PerRequestLifetimeManager() to the IUnitOfWork Unity Registration (binding) in UnityConfig.cs, so that the life-cycle of the UnitOfWork(s) instances being injected have singleton behavior within the scope of an Http request.

Update: 08/07/2013 – Ken from Microsoft has been kind enough to reach out and inform those of us that are using EF4 or EF5, that there maybe some potential collision issues, if there are entities with overlapping names, even if they live in different assemblies, please read below for a potential solution for this. If this does not apply to your use case or scenario, please continue on to the blog post after the block-quote.

At the risk of spamming your blog in comments I am turning to email. This is Ken the poster on your blog. J Your BoundedContext implementation has another interesting usage to easily support multiple DbContexts. Something that isn’t always that easy to do with a Repo + UoW frameworks. However, with EF5 and probably EF4 your readers will run into a bug if they have entities with overlapping names – EVEN IF they are separated by namespaces or live in different assemblies. For instance say you have two databases that both have a Logging table.

ExceptionMessage: The mapping of CLR type to EDM type is ambiguous because multiple CLR types match the EDM type ‘MyType’. Previously found CLR type ‘Namespace1.MyTable’, newly found CLR type ‘Namespace2.MyTable’. The mapping of CLR type to EDM type is ambiguous because multiple CLR types match the EDM type ‘ReferenceTable’. Previously found CLR type ‘Namespace1.ReferenceTable’, newly found CLR type ‘Namespace2.ReferenceTable’.”

The issue occurs with at EF5 unsure about EF4 but I suspect so. Read more here: http://entityframework.codeplex.com/workitem/911

The issue is resolved in EF6 beta1 from my testing.

Codewise this would be setup as follows

 

UnityConfig.cs
 
container.RegisterType("DbContext1");
container.RegisterType("DbContext2");
container.RegisterType(
    "DbContext1UnitOfWork", new InjectionConstructor(container.Resolve("DbContext1")));
container.RegisterType(
    "DbContext2UnitOfWork", new InjectionConstructor(container.Resolve("DbContext2")));
 
An Api Controller
 
public class SomethingFromDbContext1Controller : ApiController
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _uow;
 
        public GenericRaptorTicketController(
            [Dependency("DbContext1UnitOfWork ")] IUnitOfWork uow)
        {
            _uow = uow;
        }

Now all of the above logic in the controller goes to Database1 using the types specified by namespace (dealing with overlapping table names that resulted in POCO classes that had the same name, different namespace). Easily I could add a second, third, fourth controller and specify DbContext2UnitOfWork and point to a second database. Cool stuff. Your approach is creative and I am sharing it with my peers and customers.

Now if only I have find a T4 template to bend to my will to shape the Data Mappings and Entities. Simon Huge’s Reverse POCO template comes close with a few modifications. J

-Ken

So there was an interesting question that was raised over the weekend from Tim, on could we take our generic Unit of Work and Repositories and implement the Bounded DbContext Pattern or philosophy if you will from DDD (Domain Driven Design) concepts. There are a few reasons to go with this Pattern e.g organization, manageability, decoupling, performance (in some cases), maintainability, etc.

My favorite reason is when working with large databases and having functionality in your application that is only working with specific domain areas, why load up a DbContext that has the overhead of your entire entity graph when your only working with a specific few? For example, you may have a database that has close to 100 tables (e.g. AdventureWorks), however if a user is only managing Products on a screen, why load up a DbContext that has the overhead of the entire entity graph. Figuring out where to decouple and decompose your domain model, to implement the Bounded DbContext Pattern can span a wide array of reasons, those reasons could span from business to technical reasons, usually both.

As an example, the AdventureWorks database is already separated into domain SQL Schemas, each of the tables shown here are prefixed with the SQL Schema. This is somewhat of an example of which entities would be in a Bounded DbContext, a Bounded DbContext could be created for each of the SQL Schema’s, and each of the Bounded DbContext’s would have the tables as DbSet’s in them. Again, separating your domain into areas really depends on your use cases both business and technical, this is just an example of a starting point.

7-31-2013 2-52-45 PM

Example: Potential Bounded DbContext’s in AdventureWorks based on SQL schemas defined.

  • HumanDbcontext
  • PersonDbcontext
  • ProductionDbcontext
  • PurchasingDbcontext
  • SalesDbcontext

Anyhow, back to the topic at hand, with some minor changes, here’s how we can accomplish Bounded DbContext with our UnitOfWork and Generic Repositories, we’ll start off from our last post: Generically Implementing the Unit of Work & Repository Pattern with Entity Framework in MVC & Simplifying Entity Graphs. We are using the Northwind database as an example since this was used in the previous post, however with a database schema of this size, it’s probably not the ideal candidate for Bounded DbContext, you would probably implement this pattern on a database that had a much larger schema. But for the objective of this blog, Northwind will do. :)

Note: although we are using EF6 (alpha) in this example, we aren’t using any of EF6′s new features, however, it was a bit of a wiggle to get everything working. If you are attempting to get MVC, EF6 & SQL Sever CE 4.0 working, than this post and download maybe of use.

Data.NorthwindContext.cs – Before


    public class NorthwindContext : DbContext, IDbContext
    {
        static NorthwindContext()
        {
            Database.SetInitializer<NorthwindContext>(null);
        }

        public NorthwindContext()
            : base("Name=NorthwindContext")
        {
            Configuration.LazyLoadingEnabled = false;
        }

        public new IDbSet<T> Set<T>() where T : class
        {
            return base.Set<T>();
        }

        public override int SaveChanges()
        {
            this.ApplyStateChanges();
            return base.SaveChanges();
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        {
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new CategoryMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new CustomerDemographicMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new CustomerMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new EmployeeMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new Order_DetailMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new OrderMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new ProductMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new RegionMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new ShipperMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new SupplierMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new TerritoryMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new InvoiceMap());
        }
    }

After

Data.DbContextBase.cs

We’ll go ahead abstract out our DbContext into a base class, since we’ll have multiple Bounded DbContexts.


    public abstract DbContextBase : DbContext, IDbContext
    {
        public DbContextBase(string nameOrConnectionString) : 
            base(nameOrConnectionString)
        {
            Configuration.LazyLoadingEnabled = false;
        }

        public new IDbSet<T> Set<T>() where T : class
        {
            return base.Set<T>();
        }

        public override int SaveChanges()
        {
            this.ApplyStateChanges();
            return base.SaveChanges();
        }
    }

Data.NorthwindCustomerDataContext.cs
*Customer Bounded Context


    public class NorthwindCustomerContext : DbContextBase
    {
        static NorthwindCustomerContext()
        {
            Database.SetInitializer<NorthwindCustomerContext>(null);
        }

        public NorthwindCustomerContext()
            : base("Name=NorthwindContext")
        {
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        {
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new CustomerDemographicMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new CustomerMap());
        }
    }

Data.NorthwindDataContext – Everything else, Bounded Context :p


    public class NorthwindContext : DbContextBase
    {
        static NorthwindContext()
        {
            Database.SetInitializer<NorthwindCustomerContext>(null);
        }

        public NorthwindContext()
            : base("Name=NorthwindContext")
        {
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        {
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new CategoryMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new EmployeeMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new Order_DetailMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new OrderMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new ProductMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new RegionMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new ShipperMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new SupplierMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new TerritoryMap());
            modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new InvoiceMap());
        }
    }

We’ll need the following EntLib Unity v3.0 NuGet Packages.

  • Unity v3.0
  • Unity bootstrapper for ASP.NET MVC v3.0
  • Unity bootstrapper for ASP.NET MVC Web API v3.0

7-30-2013 9-29-07 AM

Spa.App_Start.UnityConfig.csUnity Bindings Before


container.RegisterType<IDbContext, NorthwindContext>();
container.RegisterType<IUnitOfWork, UnitOfWork>();
 

Spa.App_Start.UnityConfig.cs – Unity Bindings After (with Registration Names)


        public static void RegisterTypes(IUnityContainer container)
        {
            container.RegisterType<IDbContext, NorthwindContext>(new PerRequestLifetimeManager(), "NorthwindContext");
            container.RegisterType<IDbContext, NorthwindCustomerContext>(new PerRequestLifetimeManager(), "NorthwindCustomerContext");
            
            container.RegisterType<IUnitOfWork, UnitOfWork>(
                "NorthwindUnitOfWork", new InjectionConstructor(new ResolvedParameter<IDbContext>("NorthwindContext")));
            
            container.RegisterType<IUnitOfWork, UnitOfWork>(
                "NorthwindCustomerUnitOfWork", new InjectionConstructor(new ResolvedParameter<IDbContext>("NorthwindCustomerContext")));
        }
 

When working with ASP.NET (web apps) remember to make sure you are making good use of the UnityPerRequestHttpModule (line 12, below) in your UnityWebActivator. This will default the lifetime of your instances to lifetime of the current HttpRequest. You can configure registrations and pass in a other specific lifetime manager’s for other registration configurations who’s life-cycle does not need to bound to the HttpRequest.

Spa.App_Start.UnityWebActivator.cs


    public static class UnityWebActivator
    {
        public static void Start() 
        {
            var container = UnityConfig.GetConfiguredContainer();

            FilterProviders.Providers.Remove(FilterProviders.Providers.OfType<FilterAttributeFilterProvider>().First());
            FilterProviders.Providers.Add(new UnityFilterAttributeFilterProvider(container));

            DependencyResolver.SetResolver(new UnityDependencyResolver(container));

             DynamicModuleUtility.RegisterModule(typeof(UnityPerRequestHttpModule));
        }
    }
  

Now we could just instantiate and pass in the appropriate Bounded DbContext implementations into the UnitOfWork registrations, however we would defeat one of the fundamental reasons of DI & IoC to begin with e.g. when we write our unit test later, we aren’t going to be able to switch out DbContext with a mocked one, easily. We could even do this registration in the web.config to give us more flexibility in terms of swapping the implementations of our DbContext’s however for the purposes of this post, we’ll continue on pro-grammatically.

Spa.Controllers.CustomerController – Before

Well now, that we have Bounded DbContext and UnitOfworks, how do we get them? We have two options, first options which is leveraging DI & IoC with Unity 3.0, and the obvious method of instantiating them manually. We’ll demonstrate the first option below, in our CustomerController.


    public class CustomerController : Controller
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _unitOfWork;

        public CustomerController(IUnitOfWork unitOfWork)
        {
            _unitOfWork = unitOfWork;
        }

        public ActionResult Index(int? page)
        {
            var pageNumber = page ?? 1;
            const int pageSize = 20;

            int totalCustomerCount;

            var customers =
                _unitOfWork.Repository<Customer>()
                    .Query()
                    .OrderBy(q => q
                        .OrderBy(c => c.ContactName)
                        .ThenBy(c => c.CompanyName))
                    .Filter(q => q.ContactName != null)
                    .GetPage(pageNumber, pageSize, out totalCustomerCount);

            ViewBag.Customers = new StaticPagedList<Customer>(
                customers, pageNumber, pageSize, totalCustomerCount);

            return View();
        }

        [HttpGet]
        public ActionResult Edit(string id)
        {
            var customer = _unitOfWork.Repository<Customer>().FindById(id);
            return View(customer);
        }

        [HttpPost]
        public ActionResult Edit(Customer customer)
        {
            if (ModelState.IsValid)
                RedirectToAction("Edit");

            customer.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Customer>().Update(customer);
            _unitOfWork.Save();

            return View(customer);
        }
    }

Spa.CustomerController – After

We can get them by passing the registration name of Unity binding we setup earlier.

Option A:


    public class CustomerController : Controller
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _customerUnitOfWork;
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _northwindUnitOfWork;

        public CustomerController(IUnityContainer container)
        {
            _northwindUnitOfWork = container.Resolve<IUnitOfWork>("NorthwindUnitOfWork");;
            _customerUnitOfWork = container.Resolve<IUnitOfWork>("NorthwindCustomerUnitOfWork");
        }

        public ActionResult Index(int? page)
        {
            var pageNumber = page ?? 1;
            const int pageSize = 20;

            int totalCustomerCount;

            var customers =
                _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>()
                    .Query()
                    .OrderBy(q => q
                        .OrderBy(c => c.ContactName)
                        .ThenBy(c => c.CompanyName))
                    .Filter(q => q.ContactName != null)
                    .GetPage(pageNumber, pageSize, out totalCustomerCount);

            ViewBag.Customers = new StaticPagedList<Customer>(
                customers, pageNumber, pageSize, totalCustomerCount);

            return View();
        }

        [HttpGet]
        public ActionResult Edit(string id)
        {
            var customer = _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>().FindById(id);
            return View(customer);
        }

        [HttpPost]
        public ActionResult Edit(Customer customer)
        {
            if (ModelState.IsValid)
                RedirectToAction("Edit");

            customer.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>().Update(customer);
            _customerUnitOfWork.Save();

            return View(customer);
        }
    }

Option B:


    public class CustomerController : Controller
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _customerUnitOfWork;
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _northwindUnitOfWork;

        public CustomerController(
            [Dependency("NorthwindUnitOfWork")] IUnitOfWork northwindUnitOfWork,
            [Dependency("NorthwindCustomerUnitOfWork")] IUnitOfWork customerUnitOfWork)
        {
            _northwindUnitOfWork = northwindUnitOfWork;
            _customerUnitOfWork = customerUnitOfWork;
        }

        public ActionResult Index(int? page)
        {
            var pageNumber = page ?? 1;
            const int pageSize = 20;

            int totalCustomerCount;

            var customers =
                _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>()
                    .Query()
                    .OrderBy(q => q
                        .OrderBy(c => c.ContactName)
                        .ThenBy(c => c.CompanyName))
                    .Filter(q => q.ContactName != null)
                    .GetPage(pageNumber, pageSize, out totalCustomerCount);

            ViewBag.Customers = new StaticPagedList<Customer>(
                customers, pageNumber, pageSize, totalCustomerCount);

            return View();
        }

        [HttpGet]
        public ActionResult Edit(string id)
        {
            var customer = _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>().FindById(id);
            return View(customer);
        }

        [HttpPost]
        public ActionResult Edit(Customer customer)
        {
            if (ModelState.IsValid)
                RedirectToAction("Edit");

            customer.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>().Update(customer);
            _customerUnitOfWork.Save();

            return View(customer);
        }
    }

Note: Probably a good idea, specially in this case to go ahead and create an Enum or a class with constants instead of passing in hand coded strings as the registration name.

I prefer Option B, personally I don’t like the fact that you injecting anything with the entire Container, I rather have it when something is requesting to be injected, that the requester is specific in what it requesting for. Anyhow, I’ve seen this debate go both ways, moving on…

The alternative for those of us that are not using any IoC & DI

You should be using some form of DI & IoC with the N-number of frameworks out there, however if your not, obviously you an instantiate your Bounded UnitOfwork and DbContext directly.

Spa.CustomerController – without IoC and/or DI


    public class CustomerController : Controller
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _customerUnitOfWork;
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _northwindUnitOfWork;

        public CustomerController(IUnityContainer container)
        {
            _northwindUnitOfWork = new UnitOfWork(new NorthwindContext());
            _customerUnitOfWork = new UnitOfWork(new NorthwindCustomerContext());
        }

        public ActionResult Index(int? page)
        {
            var pageNumber = page ?? 1;
            const int pageSize = 20;

            int totalCustomerCount;

            var customers =
                _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>()
                    .Query()
                    .OrderBy(q => q
                        .OrderBy(c => c.ContactName)
                        .ThenBy(c => c.CompanyName))
                    .Filter(q => q.ContactName != null)
                    .GetPage(pageNumber, pageSize, out totalCustomerCount);

            ViewBag.Customers = new StaticPagedList<Customer>(
                customers, pageNumber, pageSize, totalCustomerCount);

            return View();
        }

        [HttpGet]
        public ActionResult Edit(string id)
        {
            var customer = _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>().FindById(id);
            return View(customer);
        }

        [HttpPost]
        public ActionResult Edit(Customer customer)
        {
            if (ModelState.IsValid)
                RedirectToAction("Edit");

            customer.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _customerUnitOfWork.Repository<Customer>().Update(customer);
            _customerUnitOfWork.Save();

            return View(customer);
        }
    }
 

Now, let’s run the application.

http://localhost:29622/Customer

7-30-2013 12-35-41 AM

There you have it, Happy Coding…! :)

Download sample application: https://skydrive.live.com/redir?resid=949A1C97C2A17906!5962

Note: Please “Enable NuGet Package Restore” on the VS Solution.

MVC 4, Web API, OData, Entity Framework, Kendo UI, Binding a Form to Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM

This will be part five of a six part series of blog posts.

  1. Modern Web Application Layered High Level Architecture with SPA, MVC, Web API, EF, Kendo UI, OData
  2. Generically Implementing the Unit of Work & Repository Pattern with Entity Framework in MVC & Simplifying Entity Graphs
  3. MVC 4, Kendo UI, SPA with Layout, View, Router & MVVM
  4. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Grid, Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  5. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Binding a Form to Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  6. Upgrading to Async with Entity Framework, MVC, OData AsyncEntitySetController, Kendo UI, Glimpse & Generic Unit of Work Repository Framework v2.0

Update: 09/09/2013 – Sample application and source code has been uploaded to CodePlex: https://genericunitofworkandrepositories.codeplex.com, updated Visual 2013, Twitter Bootstrap, MVC 5, EF6, Kendo UI Bootstrap theme, project redeployed to Windows Azure Website.

Update: 06/20/2013 – Bug fix: productEdit View intermittently failing to update. Enhancement: Added state management for Grid, after productEdit View updates (syncs), will auto navigate back to Grid and re-select the last selected row. Updated blog, sample app download, and live demo.

Just a quick recap on the last post, we wired up the Kendo UI Grid, DataSource with MVVM with all the traditional CRUD functionality. In this blog we’ll cover editing with a form in a Kendo UI View that is remotely loaded into our SPA that is bound the Kendo UI Datasource using MVVM. The View will be loaded in from with a click of a button on the row your are trying to edit from the Kendo UI Grid.

This will be part three of a five part series of blog posts.

  1. Generically Implementing the Unit of Work & Repository Pattern with Entity Framework in MVC & Simplifying Entity Graphs
  2. MVC 4, Kendo UI, SPA with Layout, View, Router & MVVM
  3. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Grid, Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  4. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Binding a Form to Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  5. Upgrading to Async with Entity Framework, MVC, OData AsyncEntitySetController, Kendo UI, Glimpse & Generic Unit of Work Repository Framework v2.0

Taking a look at a high level architecture of this three part series blog: Modern Web Application Layered High Level Architecture with SPA, MVC, Web API, EF, Kendo UI.

Live demo: http://longle.azurewebsites.net, courtesy of Windows Azure free 10 Website’s

Spa.Controllers.ProductController.cs


    public class ProductController : EntitySetController<Product, int>
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _unitOfWork;

        public ProductController(IUnitOfWork unitOfWork)
        {
            _unitOfWork = unitOfWork;
        }

        public override IQueryable<Product> Get()
        {
            return _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Query().Get();
        }

        protected override Product GetEntityByKey(int key)
        {
            return _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindById(key);
        }

        protected override Product UpdateEntity(int key, Product update)
        {
            update.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Update(update);
            _unitOfWork.Save();
            return update;
        }
        
        public override void Delete([FromODataUri] int key)
        {
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Delete(key);
            _unitOfWork.Save();
        }
        
        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            _unitOfWork.Dispose();
            base.Dispose(disposing);
        }
    }

Our Web Api OData ProductsController, pretty much the same Controller used in the previous blog to hydrate our Grid along with the other CRUD actions. This Controller will also share the same duties as it did before, for the Grid. Here it handle hydrating the Form, perform updates and deletes.

Adding a custom command Edit button to the Grid (line 32)

Spa/Content/Views/products.html


<script type="text/x-kendo-template" id="products">
    <section class="content-wrapper main-content clear-fix">    
        <h3>Technlogy Stack</h3>
        <ol class="round">
            <li class="one">
                <h5>.NET</h5>
                ASP.NET MVC 4, Web API, OData, Entity Framework        
            </li>
            <li class="two">
                <h5>Kendo UI Web Framework</h5>
                MVVM, SPA, Grid, DataSource
            </li>
            <li class="three">
                <h5>Patterns</h5>
                Unit of Work, Repository, MVVM
            </li>
        </ol>
        <h3>View Products</h3><br/>
            <div class="k-content" style="width:100%">    
            <div id="productsForm">
            <div id="productGrid" 
                data-role="grid"
                data-sortable="true"
                data-pageable="true"
                data-filterable="true"
                data-bind="source: dataSource, events:{dataBound: dataBound, change: onChange}"
                data-editable = "inline"
                data-selectable="true" 
                data-columns='[
                    { field: "ProductID", title: "Id", width: "50px" }, 
                    { field: "ProductName", title: "Name", width: "300px" }, 
                    { field: "UnitPrice", title: "Price", format: "{0:c}", width: "100px" },                    
                    { field: "Discontinued", width: "150px" }, 
                    { command : [ "edit", "destroy", { text: "Edit Details", click: editProduct } ], title: "Action",  } ]'>
            </div>
            </div>
            </div>
    </section>    
</script>

<script>
    function editProduct(e) {
        e.preventDefault();
        var tr = $(e.currentTarget).closest("tr");
        var dataItem = $("#productGrid").data("kendoGrid").dataItem(tr);
        window.location.href = '#/productEdit/' + dataItem.ProductID;
    }

    var lastSelectedProductId;
                
    var crudServiceBaseUrl = "/odata/Product";
    var productsModel = kendo.observable({
        dataSource: dataSource = new kendo.data.DataSource({
            type: "odata",
            transport: {
                read: {
                    url: crudServiceBaseUrl,
                    dataType: "json"
                },
                update: {
                    url: function (data) {
                        return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + data.ProductID + ")";
                    },
                    dataType: "json"
                },
                destroy: {
                    url: function (data) {
                        return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + data.ProductID + ")";
                    },
                    dataType: "json"
                }
            },
            batch: false,
            serverPaging: true,
            serverSorting: true,
            serverFiltering: true,
            pageSize: 10,
            schema: {
                data: function (data) {
                    return data.value;
                },
                total: function (data) {
                    return data["odata.count"];
                },
                errors: function (data) {
                },
                model: {
                    id: "ProductID",
                    fields: {
                        ProductID: { type: "number", editable: false, nullable: true },
                        ProductName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                        UnitPrice: { type: "number", validation: { required: true, min: 1 } },
                        Discontinued: { type: "boolean" },
                        UnitsInStock: { type: "number", validation: { min: 0, required: true } }
                    }
                }
            },
            error: function (e) {
                var message = e.xhr.responseJSON["odata.error"].message.value;
                var innerMessage = e.xhr.responseJSON["odata.error"].innererror.message;
                alert(message + "\n\n" + innerMessage);
            }
        }),
        dataBound: function (arg) {
            if (lastSelectedProductId == null) return; // check if there was a row that was selected
            var view = this.dataSource.view(); // get all the rows
            for (var i = 0; i < view.length; i++) { // iterate through rows
                if (view[i].ProductID == lastSelectedProductId) { // find row with the lastSelectedProductd
                    var grid = arg.sender; // get the grid
                    grid.select(grid.table.find("tr[data-uid='" + view[i].uid + "']")); // set the selected row
                    break;
                }
            }
        },
        onChange: function (arg) {
            var grid = arg.sender;
            var dataItem = grid.dataItem(grid.select());
            lastSelectedProductId = dataItem.ProductID;
        }
    });

    $(document).bind("viewSwtichedEvent", function (e, args) { // subscribe to the viewSwitchedEvent
        if (args.name == "products") { // check if this view was switched too
            if (args.isRemotelyLoaded) { // check if this view was remotely loaded from server
                kendo.bind($("#productsForm"), productsModel); // bind the view to the model
            } else {// view already been loaded in cache
                productsModel.dataSource.fetch(function() {}); // refresh grid
            }
        }
    });

</script>

Additions to Client-Side

editProduct


function editProduct(e) {
    e.preventDefault();
    var tr = $(e.currentTarget).closest("tr");
    var dataItem = $("#productGrid").data("kendoGrid").dataItem(tr);
    window.location.href = '#/productEdit/' + dataItem.ProductID;
}

The editProduct method will handle extracting the ProductID of the row we clicked “Edit Details” and navigating to the ProductEdit View.

Additions to the Observable Model

dataBound


dataBound: function (arg) {
    if (lastSelectedProductId == null) return; // check if there was a row that was selected
    var view = this.dataSource.view(); // get all the rows
    for (var i = 0; i < view.length; i++) { // iterate through rows
        if (view[i].ProductID == lastSelectedProductId) { // find row with the lastSelectedProductd
            var grid = arg.sender; // get the grid
            grid.select(grid.table.find("tr[data-uid='" + view[i].uid + "']")); // set the selected row
            break;
        }
    }

The dataBound (delgate) event handler will be responsible for re-selecting the last selected row in the Grid before we navigated away from the Grid to the productEdit View.

onChange


onChange: function (arg) {
    var grid = arg.sender;
    var dataItem = grid.dataItem(grid.select());
    lastSelectedProductId = dataItem.ProductID;
}

The onChange (delegate) event handler will be responsible for saving off the last selected rows ProductID so that if we navigate to the ProductEdit View and back we can maintain the last selected row state.

6-19-2013 6-27-27 PM

Creating the ProductEdit View

Spa/Content/Views/productEdit.html
(styles have been omitted, for clarity)


<!-- styles remove for clarity -->

<script type="text/x-kendo-template" id="productEdit">
    <section class="content-wrapper main-content clear-fix">                
        <div class="k-block" style="width:600px; margin-top:35px">            
            <div class="k-block k-info-colored">
                <strong>Note: </strong>Please fill out all of the fields in this form.
            </div>
            <div id="product-edit-form">
                <dl>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="firstName">Product Name:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="productName" type="text" data-bind="value: ProductName" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="productName" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="lastName">English Name:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="englishName" type="text" data-bind="value: EnglishName" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="englishName" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="quanityPerUnit">Quanity Per Unit:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="quanityPerUnit" type="text" data-bind="value: QuantityPerUnit" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="quanityPerUnit" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="unitPrice">Unit Price:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="unitPrice" type="text" data-bind="value: UnitPrice" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="unitPrice" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="unitPrice">Unit In Stock:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="unitsInStock" type="text" data-bind="value: UnitsInStock" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="unitsInStock" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="unitsOnOrder">Unit On Order:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="unitsOnOrder" type="text" data-bind="value: UnitsOnOrder" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="unitsOnOrder" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="reorderLevel">Reorder Level:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="reorderLevel" type="text" data-bind="value: ReorderLevel" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="reorderLevel" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="discontinued">Discontinued:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <select id="discontinued" data-role="dropdownlist">
                            <option value="1">Yes</option>
                            <option value="2">No</option>
                        </select>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="Recieved">Recieved:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <input data-role="datepicker" id="recieved">
                    </dd>
                </dl>
                <a class="k-button" data-bind="click: saveProduct"><span span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span> Submit</a>
                <a class="k-button" data-bind="click: cancel"><span span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span> Cancel</a>
            </div>
        </div>
    </section>
</script>

<script>
    var getProductId = function () { // parse for ProductId from url
        var array = window.location.href.split('/');
        var productId = array[array.length - 1];
        return productId;
    };
    
    var crudServiceBaseUrl = "/odata/Product";
    
    $(document).bind("viewSwtichedEvent", function (e, args) { // subscribe to viewSwitchedEvent
        if (args.name == "productEdit") { // check if this view was switched to
            var productModel = kendo.data.Model.define({ // we want to refresh this view anytime its switched to
                id: "ProductID",
                fields: {
                    ProductID: { type: "number", editable: false, nullable: true },
                    ProductName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                    EnglishName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                    UnitPrice: { type: "number", validation: { required: true, min: 1 } },
                    Discontinued: { type: "boolean" },
                    UnitsInStock: { type: "number", validation: { min: 0, required: true } }
                },
                saveProduct: function (e) {
                    e.preventDefault();
                    dataSource.sync();
                    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
                },
                cancel: function (e) {
                    e.preventDefault();
                    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
                }
            });

            var dataSource = new kendo.data.DataSource({
                type: "odata",
                transport: {
                    read: {
                        url: function (data) {
                            return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + getProductId() + ")";
                        },
                        dataType: "json"
                    },
                    update: {
                        url: function (data) {
                            delete data.guid;
                            delete data["odata.metadata"];
                            return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + getProductId() + ")";
                        },
                        contentType: "application/json",
                        type: "PUT",
                        dataType: "json"
                    },
                    create: {
                        url: crudServiceBaseUrl,
                        dataType: "json"
                    },
                    destroy: {
                        url: function (data) {
                            return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + getProductId() + ")";
                        },
                        dataType: "json"
                    },
                    parameterMap: function (data, operation) {
                        if (operation == "update") {
                            delete data.guid;
                            delete data["odata.metadata"];
                            data.UnitPrice = data.UnitPrice.toString();
                        }
                        return JSON.stringify(data);
                    }
                },
                sync: function (e) {
                    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
                },
                batch: false,
                schema: {
                    type: "json",
                    data: function (data) {
                        delete data["odata.metadata"];
                        return data;
                    },
                    total: function (data) {
                        return 1;
                    },
                    model: productModel
                }
            });
            dataSource.fetch(function() {
                if (dataSource.view().length > 0) {
                    kendo.bind($("#product-edit-form"), dataSource.at(0));
                }
            });
        }
    });

</script>

The ProductEdit View will be bound to the Kendo Observable Model that the Datasource will return. It’s called Observable Model because the there is two-binding between the Form and the Model, meaning when a change happens in the Form, it is automatically synced with the Model, which is bound to the Datasource.

6-19-2013 6-28-33 PM

You can essentially setup auto-sync on the Datasource so that when there are changes, it will automatically sync back to our OData Web API ProductsController. However for purposes of this post we will stick to a manual sync when we are ready to send our updates to our Controller.

product-edit-form (DIV)


            <div id="product-edit-form">
                <dl>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="firstName">Product Name:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="productName" type="text" data-bind="value: ProductName" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="productName" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="lastName">English Name:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="englishName" type="text" data-bind="value: EnglishName" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="englishName" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="quanityPerUnit">Quanity Per Unit:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="quanityPerUnit" type="text" data-bind="value: QuantityPerUnit" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="quanityPerUnit" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="unitPrice">Unit Price:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="unitPrice" type="text" data-bind="value: UnitPrice" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="unitPrice" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="unitPrice">Unit In Stock:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="unitsInStock" type="text" data-bind="value: UnitsInStock" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="unitsInStock" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="unitsOnOrder">Unit On Order:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="unitsOnOrder" type="text" data-bind="value: UnitsOnOrder" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="unitsOnOrder" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="reorderLevel">Reorder Level:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <span class="k-textbox k-space-right">
                            <input id="reorderLevel" type="text" data-bind="value: ReorderLevel" />
                            <a href="#" data-field="reorderLevel" data-bind="click: clear" class="k-icon k-i-close">&nbsp;</a>
                        </span>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="discontinued">Discontinued:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <select id="discontinued" data-role="dropdownlist">
                            <option value="1">Yes</option>
                            <option value="2">No</option>
                        </select>
                    </dd>
                    <dt>
                        <label for="Recieved">Recieved:</label></dt>
                    <dd>
                        <input data-role="datepicker" id="recieved">
                    </dd>
                </dl>
                <a class="k-button" data-bind="click: saveProduct"><span span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span> Submit</a>
                <a class="k-button" data-bind="click: cancel"><span span class="k-icon k-i-tick"></span> Cancel</a>
            </div>

Notice how everything that needs to bound is using the attributes prefixed with “data-”. This is what the Kendo Web MVVM Framework will scan for when when binding a View with a Model, long story short, this is how you specify the binding mapping options for the following:

  • Widget Type (e.g. Grid, TreeView, Calendar, DropDownList, etc.)
  • Widget Properties (Attributes)
  • Binding Type (e.g. value, click, text, etc.)
  • Binding Property from Model (e.g. firstName, lastName, productDatasource, etc.)
  • Binding Methods from Model (e.g. openWindow, cancel, sendEmail, etc.)

Client Side & Product Datasource


<script>
    var getProductId = function () { // parse for ProductId from url
        var array = window.location.href.split('/');
        var productId = array[array.length - 1];
        return productId;
    };
    
    var crudServiceBaseUrl = "/odata/Product";
    
    $(document).bind("viewSwtichedEvent", function (e, args) { // subscribe to viewSwitchedEvent
        if (args.name == "productEdit") { // check if this view was switched to
            var productModel = kendo.data.Model.define({ // we want to refresh this view anytime its switched to
                id: "ProductID",
                fields: {
                    ProductID: { type: "number", editable: false, nullable: true },
                    ProductName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                    EnglishName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                    UnitPrice: { type: "number", validation: { required: true, min: 1 } },
                    Discontinued: { type: "boolean" },
                    UnitsInStock: { type: "number", validation: { min: 0, required: true } }
                },
                saveProduct: function (e) {
                    e.preventDefault();
                    dataSource.sync();
                    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
                },
                cancel: function (e) {
                    e.preventDefault();
                    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
                }
            });

            var dataSource = new kendo.data.DataSource({
                type: "odata",
                transport: {
                    read: {
                        url: function (data) {
                            return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + getProductId() + ")";
                        },
                        dataType: "json"
                    },
                    update: {
                        url: function (data) {
                            delete data.guid;
                            delete data["odata.metadata"];
                            return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + getProductId() + ")";
                        },
                        contentType: "application/json",
                        type: "PUT",
                        dataType: "json"
                    },
                    create: {
                        url: crudServiceBaseUrl,
                        dataType: "json"
                    },
                    destroy: {
                        url: function (data) {
                            return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + getProductId() + ")";
                        },
                        dataType: "json"
                    },
                    parameterMap: function (data, operation) {
                        if (operation == "update") {
                            delete data.guid;
                            delete data["odata.metadata"];
                            data.UnitPrice = data.UnitPrice.toString();
                        }
                        return JSON.stringify(data);
                    }
                },
                sync: function (e) {
                    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
                },
                batch: false,
                schema: {
                    type: "json",
                    data: function (data) {
                        delete data["odata.metadata"];
                        return data;
                    },
                    total: function (data) {
                        return 1;
                    },
                    model: productModel
                }
            });
            dataSource.fetch(function() {
                if (dataSource.view().length > 0) {
                    kendo.bind($("#product-edit-form"), dataSource.at(0));
                }
            });
        }
    });

</script>

The Product Datasource is responsible for loading the Product details and providing a Observable Model the Form can bind to. It will handle all the rest of the CRUD activities such as updating and deleting the Product. All of the CRUD activities handled by the Datasource will happen over REST using the OData protocol asynchronously.

Client Side Code

Parsing the ProductId From the URL


    var getProductId = function () { // parse for ProductId from url
        var array = window.location.href.split('/');
        var productId = array[array.length - 1];
        return productId;
    };

This code pretty much speaks for itself, we are simply parsing the Url to get the ProductId of the Product we are loading and binding to the View.

6-19-2013 6-30-21 PM

productModel (Observable Model)


            var productModel = kendo.data.Model.define({ // we want to refresh this view anytime its switched to
                id: "ProductID",
                fields: {
                    ProductID: { type: "number", editable: false, nullable: true },
                    ProductName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                    EnglishName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                    UnitPrice: { type: "number", validation: { required: true, min: 1 } },
                    Discontinued: { type: "boolean" },
                    UnitsInStock: { type: "number", validation: { min: 0, required: true } }
                },
                saveProduct: function (e) {
                    e.preventDefault();
                    dataSource.sync();
                    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
                },
                cancel: function (e) {
                    e.preventDefault();
                    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
                }
            });

This is how we set up our Observable Product Model that will be returned from the Datasource and bound to the View. We can see here we define the primary key field (property), fields, and methods that are View buttons will bind to. When the saveProduct method is invoked, we will perform a sync, meaning all changes in the dataSource will be sent back to the server side for processing when this is invoked. Because our Model is an Observable Model, and there is two-way binding between the Model and the Datasource (as mentioned earlier), the Datasource is keeping track and knows of all the changes that are happening.

Notice how the cancel method is a redirect with the hash (#) in it, so when the redirect happens the Kendo Router will process this and have our SPA load in the Products View which is the Grid with the Product listing.

Decomposing the Datasource Configuration

paramaterMap


                        parameterMap: function (data, operation) {
                            if (operation == "update") {
                                delete data.guid;
                                delete data["odata.metadata"];
                                data.UnitPrice = data.UnitPrice.toString();
                            }
                            return JSON.stringify(data);
                        }


The parameterMap purpose is so that we can intercept and perform any pre-processing on the payload before it is sent to our Controller.

We are deleting all the properties that are not needed by our Controller, more importantly, we are doing this so that we don’t have any extra properties that are not on our Product Model or Entity, so that the MVC ModelBinder will recognize our payload and bind it to the Product parameter on our UpdateEntity(int key, Product update) method on our ProductController.

We are also converting the UnitPrice to a string before we sending back to the server side, because the UnitPrice type is decimal, and currently when using Web Api and OData, the MVC out of the box ModelBinder is not smart enough (yet) to convert a number to decimal in the ModelBinding process. Ironically, it is smart enough to convert to decimal if we send it as a string, so that’s what we’ll send of for now.

sync


sync: function (e) {
    window.location.href = '/index.html#/products';
},

The sync event is raised after the changes have been saved on the server side, once this is complete we simply navigate back to the Products Grid.

schema


schema: {
    type: "json",
    data: function (data) {
        delete data["odata.metadata"];
        return data;
    }

Here we are simply transforming the payload before binding it to the Form, we are removing the data.odata.metadata property since it’s really not needed and unpacking the data.

total


total: function (data) {
    return 1;
}

The total defined method here is simply returning the count of how many records where returned from the server, we are always returning 1 here, since this is a form bound to a single Product at all times. You can add some null checking here to return 0 or 1.

dataSource.fetch(callback)


            dataSource.fetch(function() {
                if (dataSource.view().length > 0) {
                    kendo.bind($("#product-edit-form"), dataSource.at(0));
                }
            });

This will invoke the Datasource to make a call to our Controller Get() method, and load the Product, notice how we are passing in a callback so that when the loading is complete (because it’s happening asynchronously) we are then setting to the variable productEditModel because this is the convention we need to follow mentioned in the previous posts (e.g. view, viewModel, view.html). Because we are following these conventions, our implantation in the Index.html view will work off of these conventions and bind the View to the correct Model for us.

There you have it, MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Binding a Form to Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM – Part 3.

Live demo: http://longle.azurewebsites.net

Happy Coding…! :)

Download sample application: https://genericunitofworkandrepositories.codeplex.com

MVC 4, Web API, OData, Entity Framework, Kendo UI, Grid, Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM

This will be part four of a six part series of blog posts.

  1. Modern Web Application Layered High Level Architecture with SPA, MVC, Web API, EF, Kendo UI, OData
  2. Generically Implementing the Unit of Work & Repository Pattern with Entity Framework in MVC & Simplifying Entity Graphs
  3. MVC 4, Kendo UI, SPA with Layout, View, Router & MVVM
  4. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Grid, Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  5. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Binding a Form to Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  6. Upgrading to Async with Entity Framework, MVC, OData AsyncEntitySetController, Kendo UI, Glimpse & Generic Unit of Work Repository Framework v2.0

Update: 09/09/2013 – Sample application and sourcecode has been uploaded to CodePlex: https://genericunitofworkandrepositories.codeplex.com, updated Visual 2013, Twitter Bootstrap, MVC 5, EF6, Kendo UI Bootstrap theme, project redeployed to Windows Azure Website.

Update: 06/18/2013 – Added CRUD actions to Kendo UI Grid & Datasource (read, update, delete) updated sample download and live demo.

Update: 06/20/2013 – Bug fix(es): Fixed View being loaded duplicate times. Enhancement(s): Added state management for Grid, after productEdit View updates (syncs), will auto navigate back to Grid and re-select the last selected row. Updated blog, sample app download, and live demo

Let’s start off where we left off from my previous blog MVC 4, Kendo UI, SPA with Layout, View, Router & MVVM – Part 1. In this post, we’ll cover how to wire up a Kendo UI Grid and Datasource in our SPA with MVVM using OData.

This will be part two of a five part series of blog posts.

  1. Generically Implementing the Unit of Work & Repository Pattern with Entity Framework in MVC & Simplifying Entity Graphs
  2. MVC 4, Kendo UI, SPA with Layout, View, Router & MVVM
  3. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Grid, Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  4. MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Binding a Form to Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM
  5. Upgrading to Async with Entity Framework, MVC, OData AsyncEntitySetController, Kendo UI, Glimpse & Generic Unit of Work Repository Framework v2.0

Taking a look at a high level architecture of this three part series blog: Modern Web Application Layered High Level Architecture with SPA, MVC, Web API, EF, Kendo UI.

For live demo: http://longle.azurewebsites.net, courtesy of Windows Azure free 10 Website’s.

Let’s get Web API setup and configured with OData, you will need the Nuget package Microsoft ASP.NET Web API OData.

6-18-2013 1-32-31 AM

We will use a SQL Server Compact (4.0) Northwind database for this example, you can easily use a full SQL Server Database if you’d like with libraries in this project. I’ve tested them both and they work fine. Both the Northwind SQL Compact and SQL Server database are included in the sample download application that will be available for download in Part 3 of this series. For all of those who are wondering, why did I use (embedded) SQL Server Compact for as web app..?! Well, because I can host the SQL Server Compact database in my Windows Azure Website for free..!

You will need the NuGet package EntityFramework.SqlServerCompact and Microsoft.SqlServerCompact packages. You can read up on some more in-depth details on how to setup ASP.NET MVC with SQL Server Compact Databases here.

6-18-2013 1-38-54 AM

We need to create a ProductController so that we can provide data to our View, this controller will inherit the EntitySetController which inherits the ApiController that we all know so well, so we can serve up our data using OData.

Spa.Controllers.ProductController.cs


    public class ProductController : EntitySetController<Product, int>
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _unitOfWork;

        public ProductController(IUnitOfWork unitOfWork)
        {
            _unitOfWork = unitOfWork;
        }

        public override IQueryable<Product> Get()
        {
            return _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Query().Get();
        }

        protected override Product GetEntityByKey(int key)
        {
            return _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindById(key);
        }

        protected override Product UpdateEntity(int key, Product update)
        {
            update.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Update(update);
            _unitOfWork.Save();
            return update;
        }
        
        public override void Delete([FromODataUri] int key)
        {
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Delete(key);
            _unitOfWork.Save();
        }
        
        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            _unitOfWork.Dispose();
            base.Dispose(disposing);
        }
    }

We need to setup OData with the MVC runtime as well as setup the OData endpoint. Not relevant to this post, however, notice that our OData Products Web Api Controller has a dependency for IUnitOfWork and that it is being injected (DI) with an instance of it’s concrete implementation UnitOfWork, courtesy of Unity 3.0. Please read up on post: Generically Implementing the Unit of Work & Repository Pattern with Entity Framework in MVC & Simplifying Entity Graphs, if any clarity is needed for the generic Unit Of Work and Repository pattern used in the ProductController seen here.

Spa.WebApiConfig



    public static class WebApiConfig
    {
        public static void Register(HttpConfiguration config)
        {
            ODataModelBuilder modelBuilder = new ODataConventionModelBuilder();
            var entitySetConfiguration = modelBuilder.EntitySet<Product>("Product");
            entitySetConfiguration.EntityType.Ignore(t => t.Order_Details);
            entitySetConfiguration.EntityType.Ignore(t => t.Category);
            entitySetConfiguration.EntityType.Ignore(t => t.Supplier);

            var model = modelBuilder.GetEdmModel();
            config.Routes.MapODataRoute("ODataRoute", "odata", model);

            config.EnableQuerySupport();

            config.Routes.MapHttpRoute(
                name: "DefaultApi",
                routeTemplate: "api/{controller}/{id}",
                defaults: new {id = RouteParameter.Optional}
                );
        }
    }

For interest of time we’ll go ahead an ignore all the relational mappings that our Product entity has.

Now let’s test our ProductsController with Fiddler and makes sure everything we’re able to query our Get method on our ProductController using OData queries.

6-18-2013 12-11-03 AM

The raw HTTP response message should look similar to the following:

http://localhost:29622/odata


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
Content-Type: application/atomsvc+xml; charset=utf-8
Expires: -1
Server: Microsoft-IIS/8.0
DataServiceVersion: 3.0
X-AspNet-Version: 4.0.30319
X-SourceFiles: =?UTF-8?B?RDpcVXNlcnNcbGxlXERvd25sb2Fkc1xUZW1wMlxTb2x1dGlvblxTcGFcb2RhdGE=?=
X-Powered-By: ASP.NET
Date: Tue, 18 Jun 2013 05:09:41 GMT
Content-Length: 363

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<service xml:base="http://localhost:29622/odata/" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2007/app" xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom">
  <workspace>
    <atom:title type="text">Default</atom:title>
    <collection href="Product">
      <atom:title type="text">Product</atom:title>
    </collection>
  </workspace>
</service>

The response body contains the OData service document in JSON format. The service document contains an array of JSON objects that represent the entity sets. In this case, there is a single entity set, “Product”. To query this set, send a GET request to http://localhost:port/odata/Products. The
response should be similar to the following:

http://localhost:29622/odata/Product


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
Content-Type: application/json; odata=minimalmetadata; streaming=true; charset=utf-8
Expires: -1
Server: Microsoft-IIS/8.0
DataServiceVersion: 3.0
X-AspNet-Version: 4.0.30319
X-SourceFiles: =?UTF-8?B?RDpcVXNlcnNcbGxlXERvd25sb2Fkc1xUZW1wMlxTb2x1dGlvblxTcGFcb2RhdGFcUHJvZHVjdA==?=
X-Powered-By: ASP.NET
Date: Tue, 18 Jun 2013 05:18:27 GMT
Content-Length: 21696

{
  "odata.metadata":"http://localhost:29622/odata/$metadata#Product","value":[
    {
      "ProductID":1,"ProductName":"Chai","EnglishName":"Dharamsala Tea","SupplierID":1,"CategoryID":1,"QuantityPerUnit":"10 boxes x 20 bags","UnitPrice":"20","UnitsInStock":39,"UnitsOnOrder":10,"ReorderLevel":10,"Discontinued":false,"State":"Unchanged"
    },{
      "ProductID":2,"ProductName":"Chang","EnglishName":"Tibetan Barley Beer","SupplierID":1,"CategoryID":1,"QuantityPerUnit":"24 - 12 oz bottles","UnitPrice":"19","UnitsInStock":17,"UnitsOnOrder":40,"ReorderLevel":25,"Discontinued":false,"State":"Unchanged"
    },{
      "ProductID":3,"ProductName":"Aniseed Syrup","EnglishName":"Licorice Syrup","SupplierID":1,"CategoryID":2,"QuantityPerUnit":"12 - 550 ml bottles","UnitPrice":"10","UnitsInStock":13,"UnitsOnOrder":71,"ReorderLevel":25,"Discontinued":false,"State":"Unchanged"
    },{
      "ProductID":4,"ProductName":"Chef Anton's Cajun Seasoning","EnglishName":"Chef Anton's Cajun Seasoning","SupplierID":2,"CategoryID":2,"QuantityPerUnit":"48 - 6 oz jars","UnitPrice":"22","UnitsInStock":53,"UnitsOnOrder":0,"ReorderLevel":0,"Discontinued":false,"State":"Unchanged"
    },{
      "ProductID":5,"ProductName":"Chef Anton's Gumbo Mix","EnglishName":"Chef Anton's Gumbo Mix","SupplierID":2,"CategoryID":2,"QuantityPerUnit":"36 boxes","UnitPrice":"21.35","UnitsInStock":0,"UnitsOnOrder":0,"ReorderLevel":0,"Discontinued":true,"State":"Unchanged"
    },{
      "ProductID":6,"ProductName":"Grandma's Boysenberry Spread","EnglishName":"Grandma's Boysenberry Spread","SupplierID":3,"CategoryID":2,"QuantityPerUnit":"12 - 8 oz jars","UnitPrice":"25","UnitsInStock":120,"UnitsOnOrder":0,"ReorderLevel":25,"Discontinued":false,"State":"Unchanged"
    },{
      "ProductID":7,"ProductName":"Uncle Bob's Organic Dried Pears","EnglishName":"Uncle Bob's Organic Dried Pears","SupplierID":3,"CategoryID":7,"QuantityPerUnit":"12 - 1 lb pkgs.","UnitPrice":"30","UnitsInStock":15,"UnitsOnOrder":0,"ReorderLevel":10,"Discontinued":false,"State":"Unchanged"
    },{
      "ProductID":8,"ProductName":"Northwoods Cranberry Sauce","EnglishName":"Northwoods Cranberry Sauce","SupplierID":3,"CategoryID":2,"QuantityPerUnit":"12 - 12 oz jars","UnitPrice":"40","UnitsInStock":6,"UnitsOnOrder":0,"ReorderLevel":0,"Discontinued":false,"State":"Unchanged"
    }
  ]
}

Great, we have data with OData :P

One of the important take aways here, is by implementing OData with a data provider (e.g. Entity Framework) that supports IQueryable all of our REST HTTP GET queries options (e.g. skip, take, sort, filter, equals, etc.) are automatically translated for to us to Entity Framework, so that we don’t have to wire up any of this.

Let’s launch Fiddler again and see this in action and do a OData HTTP GET request querying for product that has the name equal to “Chai”.

http://localhost:29622/odata/Product?%24inlinecount=allpages&%24top=10&%24filter=ProductName+eq+’chai&#8217;

6-18-2013 1-26-12 PM

Raw Request of OData Query


GET http://localhost:29622/odata/Product?%24inlinecount=allpages&%24top=10&%24filter=ProductName+eq+'chai' HTTP/1.1
X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest
Accept: application/json, text/javascript, */*; q=0.01
Referer: http://localhost:29622/index.html#/products
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 10.0; Windows NT 6.2; WOW64; Trident/6.0)
Host: localhost:29622
DNT: 1
Connection: Keep-Alive

Raw Request of OData Response


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
Expires: -1
Server: Microsoft-IIS/8.0
DataServiceVersion: 3.0
X-AspNet-Version: 4.0.30319
X-SourceFiles: =?UTF-8?B?RDpcVXNlcnNcbGxlXERvd25sb2Fkc1xUZW1wMlxTb2x1dGlvblxTcGFcb2RhdGFcUHJvZHVjdA==?=
X-Powered-By: ASP.NET
Date: Tue, 18 Jun 2013 18:22:02 GMT
Content-Length: 374

{
  "odata.metadata":"http://localhost:29622/odata/$metadata#Product","odata.count":"1","value":[
    {
      "ProductID":1,"ProductName":"Chai","EnglishName":"Dharamsala Tea","SupplierID":1,"CategoryID":1,"QuantityPerUnit":"10 boxes x 20 bags","UnitPrice":"20","UnitsInStock":39,"UnitsOnOrder":10,"ReorderLevel":10,"Discontinued":false,"State":"Unchanged"
    }
  ]
}

Again, querying is navtively supported out of the box with OData and a data provider that supports IQueryable, however if we re-visit our ProductController, we didn’t have to write up any code for this..!

Spa.Controllers.ProductController


    public class ProductController : EntitySetController<Product, int>
    {
        private readonly IUnitOfWork _unitOfWork;

        public ProductController(IUnitOfWork unitOfWork)
        {
            _unitOfWork = unitOfWork;
        }

        public override IQueryable<Product> Get()
        {
            return _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Query().Get();
        }

        protected override Product GetEntityByKey(int key)
        {
            return _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().FindById(key);
        }

        protected override Product UpdateEntity(int key, Product update)
        {
            update.State = ObjectState.Modified;
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Update(update);
            _unitOfWork.Save();
            return update;
        }
        
        public override void Delete([FromODataUri] int key)
        {
            _unitOfWork.Repository<Product>().Delete(key);
            _unitOfWork.Save();
        }
        
        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            _unitOfWork.Dispose();
            base.Dispose(disposing);
        }
    }

Now we create a View for the Products listing using Kendo UI Grid, Datasource and use MVVM as the adhesive to bind it all together.

Spa/Content/Views/products.html


<script type="text/x-kendo-template" id="products">
    <section class="content-wrapper main-content clear-fix">    
        <h3>Technlogy Stack</h3>
        <ol class="round">
            <li class="one">
                <h5>.NET</h5>
                ASP.NET MVC 4, Web API, OData, Entity Framework        
            </li>
            <li class="two">
                <h5>Kendo UI Web Framework</h5>
                MVVM, SPA, Grid, DataSource
            </li>
            <li class="three">
                <h5>Patterns</h5>
                Unit of Work, Repository, MVVM
            </li>
        </ol>
        <h3>View Products</h3><br/>
            <div class="k-content" style="width:100%">    
            <div id="productsForm">
            <div id="productGrid" 
                data-role="grid"
                data-sortable="true"
                data-pageable="true"
                data-filterable="true"
                data-bind="source: dataSource, events:{dataBound: dataBound, change: onChange}"
                data-editable = "inline"
                data-selectable="true" 
                data-columns='[
                    { field: "ProductID", title: "Id", width: "50px" }, 
                    { field: "ProductName", title: "Name", width: "300px" }, 
                    { field: "UnitPrice", title: "Price", format: "{0:c}", width: "100px" },                    
                    { field: "Discontinued", width: "150px" }, 
                    { command : [ "edit", "destroy", { text: "Edit Details", click: editProduct } ], title: "Action",  } ]'>
            </div>
            </div>
            </div>
    </section>    
</script>

<script>
    function editProduct(e) {
        e.preventDefault();
        var tr = $(e.currentTarget).closest("tr");
        var dataItem = $("#productGrid").data("kendoGrid").dataItem(tr);
        window.location.href = '#/productEdit/' + dataItem.ProductID;
    }

    var lastSelectedProductId;
                
    var crudServiceBaseUrl = "/odata/Product";
    var productsModel = kendo.observable({
        dataSource: dataSource = new kendo.data.DataSource({
            type: "odata",
            transport: {
                read: {
                    url: crudServiceBaseUrl,
                    dataType: "json"
                },
                update: {
                    url: function (data) {
                        return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + data.ProductID + ")";
                    },
                    dataType: "json"
                },
                destroy: {
                    url: function (data) {
                        return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + data.ProductID + ")";
                    },
                    dataType: "json"
                }
            },
            batch: false,
            serverPaging: true,
            serverSorting: true,
            serverFiltering: true,
            pageSize: 10,
            schema: {
                data: function (data) {
                    return data.value;
                },
                total: function (data) {
                    return data["odata.count"];
                },
                errors: function (data) {
                },
                model: {
                    id: "ProductID",
                    fields: {
                        ProductID: { type: "number", editable: false, nullable: true },
                        ProductName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                        UnitPrice: { type: "number", validation: { required: true, min: 1 } },
                        Discontinued: { type: "boolean" },
                        UnitsInStock: { type: "number", validation: { min: 0, required: true } }
                    }
                }
            },
            error: function (e) {
                var message = e.xhr.responseJSON["odata.error"].message.value;
                var innerMessage = e.xhr.responseJSON["odata.error"].innererror.message;
                alert(message + "\n\n" + innerMessage);
            }
        }),
        dataBound: function (arg) {
            if (lastSelectedProductId == null) return; // check if there was a row that was selected
            var view = this.dataSource.view(); // get all the rows
            for (var i = 0; i < view.length; i++) { // iterate through rows
                if (view[i].ProductID == lastSelectedProductId) { // find row with the lastSelectedProductd
                    var grid = arg.sender; // get the grid
                    grid.select(grid.table.find("tr[data-uid='" + view[i].uid + "']")); // set the selected row
                    break;
                }
            }
        },
        onChange: function (arg) {
            var grid = arg.sender;
            var dataItem = grid.dataItem(grid.select());
            lastSelectedProductId = dataItem.ProductID;
        }
    });

    $(document).bind("viewSwtichedEvent", function (e, args) { // subscribe to the viewSwitchedEvent
        if (args.name == "products") { // check if this view was switched too
            if (args.isRemotelyLoaded) { // check if this view was remotely loaded from server
                kendo.bind($("#productsForm"), productsModel); // bind the view to the model
            } else {// view already been loaded in cache
                productsModel.dataSource.fetch(function() {}); // refresh grid
            }
        }
    });

</script>

We wrap our html content in the script tags with type=”text/x-kendo-template”, this is so we can leverage all the goodness that Kendo UI Web Templates bring to the table.

productGrid (Spa/Content/Views/products.html)


            <div id="productGrid" 
                data-role="grid"
                data-sortable="true"
                data-pageable="true"
                data-filterable="true"
                data-bind="source: dataSource, events:{dataBound: dataBound, change: onChange}"
                data-editable = "inline"
                data-selectable="true" 
                data-columns='[
                    { field: "ProductID", title: "Id", width: "50px" }, 
                    { field: "ProductName", title: "Name", width: "300px" }, 
                    { field: "UnitPrice", title: "Price", format: "{0:c}", width: "100px" },                    
                    { field: "Discontinued", width: "150px" }, 
                    { command : [ "edit", "destroy", { text: "Edit Details", click: editProduct } ], title: "Action",  } ]'>
            </div>

Model & Datasource (Spa/Content/Views/products.html)


    var crudServiceBaseUrl = "/odata/Product";
    var productsModel = kendo.observable({
        dataSource: dataSource = new kendo.data.DataSource({
            type: "odata",
            transport: {
                read: {
                    url: crudServiceBaseUrl,
                    dataType: "json"
                },
                update: {
                    url: function (data) {
                        return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + data.ProductID + ")";
                    },
                    dataType: "json"
                },
                destroy: {
                    url: function (data) {
                        return crudServiceBaseUrl + "(" + data.ProductID + ")";
                    },
                    dataType: "json"
                }
            },
            batch: false,
            serverPaging: true,
            serverSorting: true,
            serverFiltering: true,
            pageSize: 10,
            schema: {
                data: function (data) {
                    return data.value;
                },
                total: function (data) {
                    return data["odata.count"];
                },
                errors: function (data) {
                },
                model: {
                    id: "ProductID",
                    fields: {
                        ProductID: { type: "number", editable: false, nullable: true },
                        ProductName: { type: "string", validation: { required: true } },
                        UnitPrice: { type: "number", validation: { required: true, min: 1 } },
                        Discontinued: { type: "boolean" },
                        UnitsInStock: { type: "number", validation: { min: 0, required: true } }
                    }
                }
            },
            error: function (e) {
                var message = e.xhr.responseJSON["odata.error"].message.value;
                var innerMessage = e.xhr.responseJSON["odata.error"].innererror.message;
                alert(message + "\n\n" + innerMessage);
            }
        }),
        dataBound: function (arg) {
            if (lastSelectedProductId == null) return; // check if there was a row that was selected
            var view = this.dataSource.view(); // get all the rows
            for (var i = 0; i < view.length; i++) { // iterate through rows
                if (view[i].ProductID == lastSelectedProductId) { // find row with the lastSelectedProductd
                    var grid = arg.sender; // get the grid
                    grid.select(grid.table.find("tr[data-uid='" + view[i].uid + "']")); // set the selected row
                    break;
                }
            }
        },
        onChange: function (arg) {
            var grid = arg.sender;
            var dataItem = grid.dataItem(grid.select());
            lastSelectedProductId = dataItem.ProductID;
        }
    });

Notice how there is very little, if any, of our own code here. All we’ve done, is simply configured (filling in the blanks) the Kendo Datasource.

The important items to note here is that by default our OData enabled ProductController returns the count as data.odata.count and our data set in data.value, with this being the case we will need to help the Datasource by unpacking this and returning it to the Datasource. You can see how this is done in the schema data and total functions defined above.

We also define the model in the Datasource, the model inherits Kendo’s Observable object (class), meaning their is two-way binding with the Grid and Datasource, so anytime something happens on the Grid updates are automatically sent to the Datasource, then sent to our ProductsController.

The productGrid is declaratively attributed using the data- attributes, this is what Kendo UI MVVM uses for binding the View to the Model.

Subscribing to the viewSwitchedEvent Event


    $(document).bind("viewSwtichedEvent", function (e, args) { // subscribe to the viewSwitchedEvent
        if (args.name == "products") { // check if this view was switched too
            if (args.isRemotelyLoaded) { // check if this view was remotely loaded from server
                kendo.bind($("#productsForm"), productsModel); // bind the view to the model
            } else {// view already been loaded in cache
                productsModel.dataSource.fetch(function() {}); // refresh grid
            }
        }
    });

Here we are simply subscribing to viewSwitchedEvent that is published from the host page (Spa\index.html) of our SPA. This event is published (raised) everytime is View switching is complete. Here we check that the View that was switched in place was indeed the products View and that it was the first time is was loaded remotely from the server, if so, we bind the View to the Model. We do this only on the first time it loads from the server because there is really no need to do this more than once.

Now let’s load up the application and see our Products listing.

6-18-2013 3-01-38 PM

Testing Filtering and Sorting

6-18-2013 3-01-27 PM

Testing Inline Grid Editing

6-18-2013 6-31-01 PM

Testing Inline Grid Deleting

6-18-2013 6-57-55 PM

6-18-2013 6-55-22 PM

We see this error:

An error has occurred.

The primary key value cannot be deleted because references to this key still exist. [ Foreign key constraint name = Order Details_FK00 ]

Which is expected since the Order Details still has foreign keys to the Product table.

There you have it MVC 4, Web API, OData, Kendo UI, Grid, Datasource with MVVM. To spice things up, I changed the Kendo UI CSS to the Metro UI theme.

For live demo: http://longle.azurewebsites.net

Stay tuned for Part 3…

Part 3 – MVC 4, Web API, OData, EF, Kendo UI, Binding a Form to Datasource (CRUD) with MVVM

Download sample application: https://genericunitofworkandrepositories.codeplex.com

Happy Coding…! :)